An Electro-magnet Aerodynamic Augmentation Device From Alpha Centauri

Dr. Barry M. Warmkessel
Support from Larry Giver, Sonja Kawamoto, Rey Perini and Bruce Roberts.

©Copyright: 16 August 2002
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An analysis is offered as to how extra-terrestrial alien "saucers" ease their passage through our low atmosphere at supersonic speeds without sonic "booms" and what electromagnetic radio frequencies may leak from their related (and now patented) Aerodynamic Augmentation Device (AAD).1 Explained are UFO related enigmas like magnetic fields, glowing saucers and the lack of "sonic booms" during high speed encounters.2 Possible UFO related "radar" transmission frequencies are postulated. A method to distinguish alien vs. human produced crop circles is considered.




Historian Gerald K. Haines has revealed that an extraordinary 95 percent of all Americans have at least heard or read something about UFOs, and 57 percent believe they are real." Is it really so shocking then that some of us are trying to discover how they operate? As amazing as it may seem, the basis of advanced alien technology is beginning to become known. For instance, the transistor and stealth technology are rumored to be among the first of such alien sciences adapted for military purposes. The proposed Vehicle Masking Device (VMD3) and the associated UFO Detection Device (UDD4) are others. Demonstrating that something could be accomplished is perhaps the most effective method for humans to accept the fact that it can be done. Otherwise, few high ranking bureaucrats, industrial leaders or venture capitalists would have the courage to step out into a new field of endeavor. Even when this happens, it is often the second tier powers (like England) that produce the simplest of these advancements (e.g. the Harrier, the steam catapult or the angled deck on aircraft carriers). Unfortunately, it is usually the wealthiest countries (like the United States) that exhibit the least imagination when it comes to new technologies. Now, however, the probability that several advanced alien civilizations may be monitoring the development of our species seems to be spurring us on.

Alien saucers ionize the air around their edges by millimeter wave radiation, then "thin" it by separating the ions with a magnetic field so they are effectively flying through a rarefied atmosphere similar in composition to the ionosphere. The diminished pressure gradient eases the boundary layer effects between the saucer's hull and the atmosphere, thereby substantially reducing or completely eliminating the "sonic boom". The saucer's vertical lift and horizontal thrust phenomenon are not considered herein.

Microwave radiation has been associated with UFO activity for a long time. One case,5 occurring on 17 July 1957, the ALA-6 direction finding receiver on an RB-47 reconnaissance aircraft intercepted microwave signals from at least one (and probably two) UFOs. One of the UFOs buzzed the RB-47 near Meridian, Mississippi and two other UFOs later paced the aircraft in the Dallas/Fort Worth area. The UFOs were detected visually and the signals associated with them were monitored by Electronic Counter Measure (ECM) equipment aboard the reconnaissance aircraft. Ground based radar also tracked the UFOs as the RB-47 flew over 700 miles through several states.

The microwave signal parameters intercepted by the RB-47 were a Radio Frequency (RF) of 2.995 to 3.000 Giga-hertz (GHz), a Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) of 600 pulses per second, a Pulse Width of 2.0 microseconds and an apparent sweep rate of 4 revolutions per minute (rpm). An intense bluish white light about the UFO was observed. A red color (an anti-collision light) near the top of the UFOs was noted when two were observed in the immediate vicinity.

It is important to point out that the experienced Electronic Warfare (EW) crew took measures to verify that this signal was coming from moving targets that both maneuvered around and paced their aircraft. One EW officer recalled that the (4 rpm) scan rate appeared to be artificially generated so the signal could (purposely) be confused with the CPS-6B ground based radars widely used at that time.

The author contends that saucers have been using microwave energy to reduce air density in the atmosphere around the saucer's edge by simply heating the surrounding air. McCampbell6 has previously suggested that the transfer of microwave photon momentum (hv/c) is employed to repel the air molecules. But only thermal and magnetic effects are considered in this analysis, although photon momentum transfer will enhance the net effect7. The reduction of both inertial and viscous drag are envisioned because the saucer encounters an artificially rarefied troposphere. Moreover, microwave radiation symmetry all around the edge of the saucer prevents turbulent collapse of the air flow and instead yields a smooth laminar pattern. Thus, these saucers can travel at apparent supersonic velocities at sea level without a sonic boom because the Mach speed increases with decreasing air density. The hot air surrounding the saucers introduces their familiar morphing appearance.

Heating the air around aircraft has been previously suggested as a means to reduce shock waves and ease flight. Schoppe8, in 1971, suggested direct methods for heating the air (e.g. by combustion or nuclear radiation) for purposes of eliminating an aircraft's "sonic boom". Tidman9 suggested the injection and ignition of fuel in front of the aircraft so air density could be reduced. In 1993, Riley10 proposed to use laser energy to reduce air drag and eliminate sonic boom. All the above techniques heat the atmosphere by some means.

The Oxygen microwave absorption peak occurs almost exactly at 60 GHz, and this RF is proposed as the primary RF radiated by the UFO. Both H2O and O2 molecules have substantial dipoles which can easily be excited by microwave radiation. See Figure 1. This is not the case with the Nitrogen molecules as they have no significant dipoles. While two H2O and one O2 absorption bands exist at higher RFs, there would be no need to target them. The strong Oxygen band (60 GHz) will be encountered in any terrestrial atmosphere. It is of interest that 0.2 megawatt tubes that operate at 60 GHz are commercially available.11

Attenuation Band MediaAttenuation Band Center
First H2O Band22.2 GHz
First O2 Band60 GHz
Second O2 Band119 GHz
Second H2O Band180 GHz
Third H2O Band 320 GHz

Conditions: Temperature: 20o C, Pressure: Sea Level (one atmosphere, Water Vapor: 7.5 gm/m2

Figure 1. One Way Atmospheric Attenuation Of Microwave Radiation.

The 3.0 GHz signal intercepted by the RB-47 is likely a lower harmonic frequency associated with the generation of the primary RF. First, a synthesized tone must be up-converted to drive amplifiers operating at full useful power at the primary RF. The bulk of the microwave energy is transmitted at the primary RF, but some of the low level up-converted mixing products also find their way into the power amplifier and are transmitted as well. It was one of these RFs that the RB-47 crew intercepted.

The 3.0 GHz signal intercepted by the ALA-6 (covering 1.0 to 7.5 GHz) is the 20th (4 multiplier X 5 multiplier) sub-harmonic of the primary RF. Moreover, a 12 GHz and 15 GHz component of this radiation could perhaps have been observed if the ALA-6 receiver had covered this RF range or if the ADP-4 ECM system had been properly functioning during this intercept (it was broken). The RF at 60 GHz is far above the frequency coverage of the ECM intercept equipment then carried on the RB-47.

The 60 GHz RF signal is transmitted with a 0.0012 duty cycle from antennas (about 13 centimeters high) encircling the saucer, producing a +/- 1.24o beam. The air is heated with power producing ionization of the O2 molecules up to 6 meters from the saucer's rim, causing a visible glow. The O2 shares energy with the Nitrogen, heating a 2 meter high, 30 meter wide stream of onrushing (1000 mph) air to 2100o K.

Figure 2. A 30 Meter In Diameter Saucer Exits The Netherlands Costscheld (West Sea).

Figure 2 is an artist's concept of an eye witness account12 of a (verified13) alien saucer leaving the ocean shortly after it was almost totally submerged. Notice the presence of the bright glow about the saucer's rim. The RF excited O2 molecules will transfer some of their thermal energy to Nitrogen (N2) molecules and produce a brilliant, dazzling luminosity (known as plasma). The colors are likely the result of energy radiating and re-radiation from H+, H2, OH- and H2O ions. Oxygen and water vapor molecules glow, especially about the saucer's rim, because microwave energy (attuned to the rotational rate of these molecules) is being used to excite them.

This glow's exact color is difficult to anticipate due to complex radiation and re-radiation from water molecules, related ions and other impurities. For example, Hydrogen ions - formed from water molecules - will glow a bluish green color. The plasma, near the antenna's aperture (located around the saucer's rim) would normally be bluish, but Sodium ions (from the sea's salt) will modify it causing a yellowish color. It was the bluish color that was seen by the RB- 47 crew (at about 35,000 ft) as the UFOs were no where near sea water. Only minor plasma distortions are found on high speed UFOs. Figure 3 shows one of Blue Book's best14 (computer enhanced15) photos illustrating this effect.

Figure 3. Computerized image enhancement of one of the best UFO photographs collected by the Air Force's project Blue Book, the "Montana Movie", filmed on 15 August 1950 by Nick Marina. Enhanced image credited to William Spaulding, director of GSW, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona.

Figure 4 contains two color photographs of a UFO operating over the Monterey Bay.16 The first clearly illustrates the glow about the saucer's rim. The second shows the same blue and red colors found in Figure 2. Both suggest that the blue is in front of the saucer and the red in back. The photographer even calls out the white/yellowish color found as "flame". This work concludes that he's almost right.

The air density (and the inertial drag) could be reduced by a factor of 7.7 (via Boyle's law) if the air has been heated to 2100o K. A 30 meter saucer's large surface area would serve as an effective radiator. Inertial drag is linearly proportional to the air density but proportional to the square of the aircraft's velocity. Thus, the saucer could fly 2.8 times faster (still at sub sonic speeds) with the AAD operative than with it off.

Figure 4. Micro-photograph of UFO, 19 Dec. 1971 SW of Santa Cruz, CA over ocean.

Viscous drag forces could also be reduced because the accumulation of boundary layer fluid (air) on the surface of the saucer is diminished. A conventional way sometimes suggested to reduce this accumulation of air adhering to conventional aircraft's wings is to suck it into the wing through slots and then exhaust it through the rear of the aircraft (or its wings). If the saucer's skin is conductive (e.g. metallic) and if the 60 GHz antenna is loosely coupled to it, a few percent of the microwave radiation will leak onto the fuselage. This radiation will "crawl" over the saucer's surface, heating the adhering air and dispelling it thereby reducing viscous drag. See the un- enhanced version of Figure 3.

At supersonic speeds, the pressure field is confined to a region at the rear and extends from a conventional aircraft in a widening (Mach) cone. When it intersects the earth, a "sonic boom" is often heard. A "sonic boom" is a type of shock wave that occurs when waves generated by a source over a period of time add together in a coherent manner (re-enforcing peaks and deepening troughs).

This process is much like the way a V shaped bow wave is created by a motor boat when its speed is greater than the speed of the waves naturally supported by the water. The decreased pressure gradient at the front of the saucer destroys the coherency of the pressure fronts and they do not add together coherently. Thus, the "sonic boom" is reduced or completely eliminated. This is analogous to the effect of using a bulbous bow rather that a straight sharp (motor boat) bow on large ships. Such bows enables these large vessels to more effectively (and economically) pass through the ocean.

The hot air bubble around the saucer streamlines it. The pressure gradients acting on the boundary layer between the ambient air and the saucer are dramatically reduced, because they are distributed over several meters for saucers versus several centimeters for airplanes.

For a normal airplane, the drag coefficient always rises as the Mach number approaches unity, but thereafter it may fall. The hot air bubble about the saucer reduces the power that needs to be expended at true supersonic speeds because the coherent addition of pressure waves around the saucer is degraded. This will reduce or eliminate the energy transmitted to the shock cone thereby reducing or eliminating the "sonic boom" which otherwise would be caused by a high-speed passage of the saucer.


The implications of the foregoing analysis suggest explanations to the following intriguing UFO related enigmas, examples of some that come to mind are:

  1. Saucers, or their occupants, seem somewhat casual about exposing humans to the hazards of the AAD's microwave radiation. Many examples can be cited. One of the most famous is the Fort Itaipu incident (4 November 1957 at San Vicente, San Paulo, Brazil) which resulted in serious first and second degree burns to sentries patrolling the fort's perimeter. Another is the S. Michalak incident (20 May 1967 at Falcon Lake, Canada) whose shirt caught fire and gloves melted when the UFO he was examining suddenly tilted, and then took off21. He experienced a grid pattern of markings on his chest similar to the burns on his shirt. These later turned into a rash.
  2. The Cash/Landrum incident22 (29 December 1980 near Huffman, Texas, USA) involving CH 47 Helicopters escorting a UFO makes one wonder if government involvement with an AAD like concept has not already occurred. Betty Cash sustained blisters on her face, her neck, earlobes and her eyelids were swollen. She also suffered from serious hair loss, vomiting and diarrhea. These maladies could have been the result of her exposure to radiation from a government operated AAD.
  3. 7 July 1977, 3,000 people attended an open air movie in the Zhang Po Disrict of Fujian Province in Mainland China, Suddenly, two flying objectsglowing fiery orange, flat on top and bottom, swooped down from the sky toward the crowd - almost touching the ground. They flew in tandem, flashing glowing lights. The terrified onlookers heard them emitting a deep hum and felt a searing heat. The crowd panicked. Two children were killed and 200 people were injured during the ensuing stampede23
  4. SONIC BOOM: Observers of unidentified flying objects report a variety of sound effects associated with the phenomenon. Some report sharp, explosive sound during rapid acceleration or high-speed flight. Others refer to humming, whining or whirring noise while the UFO is hovering or moving at relatively slow speeds. Still others mention whistling or swishing sounds suggestive of rushing air.
    More remarkable than any of the foregoing, however, are reports that describe the UFO as moving at velocities far in excess of the maximum speed of sound in the earth's atmosphere without producing any noise or shock wave that would normally be expected under such conditions of atmospheric displacement. No characteristic "boom" is heard in these instances.
    The absence of a sonic boom in these cases remains a mystery. Possible explanations are that:
    1. actual speed was overestimated;
    2. a natural atmospheric effect that could suppress the sonic boom was present
    3. the object or phenomenon did not displace the atmospheric gases through which it was passing at supersonic speeds.
    "Many reported UFO's can fly supersonically - and without producing a sonic boom. However, according to a great body of theory, computer simulations, and observations, shocks (jumps in density, velocity, and pressure) -- and therefore sonic booms - will always appear from supersonic motion. My (Loren Petrich?) Ph.D. thesis had involved hydrodynamics calculations and supersonic motion, so I can claim direct knowledge of this problem. Sonic-boom suppression would require some sort of manipulation of the surrounding air that is far in advance of our technology, if it is feasible at all.
    Furthermore, boom-less supersonic flight would be very valuable for airplane manufacturers - if it could be achieved, because it would remove a major drawback of supersonic flight. Supersonic airliners are currently restricted to flying over oceans and other thinly populated areas for this reason, and boom- less supersonic flight would also be valuable for military aircraft, since a sonic boom could give them away."
  6. The Magnetic Field Intensity B: Electro-Magnetic interference effects on electric devices together with some physiological effects affecting witnesses who approached occasionally an UFO that was standing still, suggest that UFOs are surely surrounded by a strong magnetic field.24
  7. On Friday, Sept. 11, 1992, at approximately 6:20 PM a disk shaped UFO was sighted near Gulf Breeze, Florida. It appeared to rise upward, move to the right a short distance while flipping over and disappear in the clear sky. Following the brief visual sighting, an area search revealed three 11 ft circles of depressed pond grasses were discovered in the bottom of a shallow pond. An estimate of the size of the disk based on the visual apparent size and the distance to the circles agrees with the size of the circles. An area search was made with a magnetic field gradiometer and revealed locations of anomalously high field gradient in the absence of known sources (large pieces of metal or electric current carrying wires). Estimates of the magnetic source strengths were made using the recorded gradiometer data (audio tones). The source strengths were found to be quite large in a manner that is consistent with estimates based on observed magnetic phenomena associated with other UFO sightings. One major difference between this magnetic field detection and other reported cases is that there was no UFO visually present during the detection of the field, which was only detected many hours after the sighting. This raises the question of whether or not a UFO actually was present during the measurements but in some way made itself invisible, or if the departing UFO in some way managed to leave a magnetic "trace" of its presence many hours before.
    Anomalous magnetic effects have long been associated with UFOs. The earliest magnetic effect report on record is that of Fred Johnson who was prospecting near Mt. Adams WA on June 24, 1947. On that day, and only minutes before Johnson's sighting, Kenneth Arnold, a private pilot was flying a small plane about 20 miles west of Mt. Rainier in the state of Washington. Arnold saw nine flat, shiny crescent-like objects fly southward past Mt. Rainier (Maccabee, 1986; Story, 1980). Arnold last saw them as they vanished in the distance near Mt. Adams, about 50 miles south of Rainier. Arnold's sighting was widely reported in the press and gave rise to the term "flying saucers."
    Several weeks after the sighting Johnson told the Air Force and then the FBI that he saw several of the objects fly overhead. He looked at them with a telescope and estimated their altitude as about 1,000 ft (about 300 m) above him and their diameter at about 30 ft (about 9 m). Of particular interest here, however, is Johnson's statement that, as the object passed over, his compass continually oscillated from side to side (Maccabee, 1986).25
    It is unclear how such effects might be produced. One suggestion that has been made as to ignition-failure is that very strong magnetic fields might so saturate the iron core of the coil that it would drive the operating point up to the knee of the magnetization curve, so that the input magnetic oscillations would produce only a very small output effect. Only a few orsteads would have to be produced right at the coil to accomplish this kind of affect, but when one back-calculates, allowing for shielding effects and typical distances, and assumes an inverse third-power dipole field, the requisite H- values within a few feet of the UFO dipole end, to speak here somewhat loosely, comes out in the megagause range.26
  9. McDonald's article27 provides a vital key towards understanding the UFO phenomenon (e.g. by revealing a leakage frequency or perhaps one actually used as a radar transmission) Observations 4 and 7, contained in the foregoing analysis, offers a motive as to why his death may be other than an apparent suicide28. The government, and certainly the Air Force, would certainly have good reason to be interested in a mechanism such as the Aerodynamic Augmentation Device (AAD). If there is truly a government cover-up, hiding the UFO enigma in a tight cloak of secrecy can be supported during the cold war era. But with the ending of this era, continuing this cloak of secrecy can be poorly justified for such a courageous and military species as mankind. Perhaps bringing our combined resources to bear on this enigma can truly bring us into the "space age" in a few short centuries, or even less.
  10. The attempt of the UFOs, observed by the RB-47, to obscure detection of their residual RFs by human electronic signal collection efforts reveals much about its crew. Such actions are known to be characteristic of the Hill aliens (from Alpha Centauri) because there is reason to believe they count in binary and by their attempts at memory erasure through hypnotic suggestion. The binary based RF multiplier scheme predicts the RF intercepted by the RB-47 to three or four significant figure accuracy. By contrast, the saucer exiting the ocean, as illustrated in Figure 2, is known to be piloted by the Denaerde aliens (who are infrequent visitors to Earth). However, they are a much friendlier and less deceptive species who are willing to share their knowledge. The home stellar system of both these alien species are two completely different star systems29. Thus, this leads to the additional suggestion that the AAD's air drag reduction mechanism may be common knowledge to other technological species in our local region of the galaxy.


The aliens must also consider practical operational conditions, while maneuvering in Earth's air space, like monitoring local aircraft traffic. There is no reason they could not use conventional RADAR techniques, especially since an RF generation technique is already required to generate the 60 GHz millimeter wave frequency. Following are some of the reasons such a device would be needed.

  1. Avoid mid air collisions with human aircraft as these could be embarrassing.
  2. Capability to pace human aircraft such that the aircraft's body prevents viewing the saucer.17
  3. Avoid engagements with human military aircraft.
Together, these requirements imply some type of radar with the further requirements that such transmissions should not be easily noticed:
  1. Any radar transmission should resemble those from indigenous radars.
  2. The radar should not look like a "new and different" alien radar.
  3. The radar should have the range of at least 100 kilometers.

The radar signal intercepted by the RB 47 crew on 17 July 1957 from the alien saucers were almost identical to the CPS-6B ground based radars while operating over the USA would fit the latter two requirements nicely. However, the emission of the 60 GHz radiation ionizing the air around the saucer would attenuate transmission and reception of this radar signal unless the ionizing radiation was intermittent (e.g. with the observed pulse rate of 600 pps).

To these ends, it is suggested that the saucers (involved in the July 1957 event) utilizes a 60 GHz Gyro-klystoron amplifier tube operating with a 0.5 duty factor (that is, it would be turned off for 833 microseconds and on for 833 microsecond every 1667 microsecond pulse rate interval). Thus, the air's O2 molecules would be heated for 833 microseconds every time they moved about a half meter closer to the saucer. While the 60 GHz signal is suppressed, a pulsed L or S band radar signal could be reflected and received from an aircraft target 124 kilometers from the saucer.

A circular phased steered array radar, located on the saucer's outer rim and operating with pulse RFs in L or S band, would serve this function nicely. A continuous wave (CW) radar operating in C band could serve as a radar which could deduce a measurable Doppler RF reflected from the target aircraft, and hence measure its relative velocity.

Danjo18 has shown that some of our frequent alien visitors from Alpha Centauri count in binary (see Table H-9). Thus, they might employ a crystal oscillator transmitting an IF at 2n hertz (as humans would measure it). A 217 Hz crystal would operate at 131,072 Hz, and would be similar to our kilometer crystal which operates at 150,000 Hz. Assuming that the crystal frequency bounds the lower RF end of the frequency of the RF multiplication chain and the 60 GHz signal bounds the upper end resulting RF, the intermediate RF products can be deduced. See Figure 5. This up-conversion scheme permits the generation of 9 (possibly 11) high L, S and C band pulsed signals. Moreover, 5 (possibly 7) C band tones are available for Doppler velocity determination radar.

Figure 5. A Possible Alien Crystal RF to 60 GHz RF Up-Conversion Scheme.

The tone and filter switches in this design operate with multiples of two (binary) positions. See Table 1.

Table 1
Other Possible Saucer Related Detectable RFs
Pulsed RFs
K - Band RF
MHz or GHz
143G599.7852 X 22399.14511995.7 MHz559.97
149D624.9512 X 22499.81Continued
143A599.78552998.93514994.6 MHz2 X 259.98
149K624.9513 X 23749.714***14998.8 MHz2 X 260.00
159P666.8942 X 34001.37?312004.1 MHz560.02
146C612.3687 4286.58?730.01 GHz260.01
CW RF Tones
C- Band
K - Band RF
MHz or GHz
143A599.78552998.93?514994. 6 MHz2 X 259.98
149K624.9513 X 23749.71?4***14998.8 MHz2 X 260.00
159P666.8942 X 34001.37312004.1 MHz560.02
146C612.36874286.58730.01 GHz260.01
149D624.951234999.09314997. 3 MHz2 X 259.99
143E599.7855 X 25997.85529.99 GHz259.98
159M666.8943 X 36002.05530.01 GHz260.02

*There are only four RFs in this column; 599.785, 612.368, 624.951 and 666.894 MHz
**The RFs above 22 GHz are highly attenuated by the troposphere and relatively undetectable.
***Specifically, these are 4X multipliers, not 2X times 2X multipliers because the 2X multipliers would give rise to a high C band signal that would appear unique and unusual if it were detected.

Eight (23) individual RF paths are provided, all of which result in a W band signal transmitting between 59.97 and 60.02 GHz. Notice also that there are possibly 4 L band and 4 K band leakage RFs. These latter RF range could have drawn attention to the alien saucer back in 1957, but the C band tones would be easily confused with existing microwave links. Notice also that two separate paths produce an RF of 2.999 GHz, just within the bounds of the 2.995 to 3.000 GHz signal intercepted by the RB-47 on 17 July, 1957. Table 1 provides a list of other "saucer related" RFs that both amateur or professional UFO observers can use while searching for signals with their "fuzz-buster like" electronic equipment. These frequencies may relate only to Hill Alien operated saucers as they are known to count in binary and display such range related schemes as depicted in Figure 6.

Figure 6. Human Air Traffic As Viewed On A Hypothetical UFO Radar.

Danjo19 has shown how the aliens display range data (i.e. as deduced from the famous Hill star map. Figure 6 illustrates how the first three considerations concerning the monitoring of human aircraft traffic could appear on an alien radar scope. Note that the ratio of the height (h) of the triangle to its base (b) is the binary ratio (2h/b) of the saucer and aircraft separation in units of "saucer diameters (D)". For example, if a h/b = 12 is found, the target is 2h/b X D = 212 X 30 meters = 123 kilometers distant.
Figure 6. Continued.


The RF radiation crawling about the saucer's surface offers a reason for the circular regions of scorched ground often found near UFO landing (and take off) sites. If still active, the RF leakage (intended to repel adhering air molecules when the saucer is in flight) will permeate the ground or nearby vegetation and cook it. Alternately, if the RF antenna is coupled to the saucer's skin in such a way as to permit only a few percent leakage to repel adhering air then microwave power could heat the area around a landed saucer.

The association of "UFOs" and "crop circles" is made elsewhere in this site. The ingredients for such an association are available from the foregoing analysis. For example, if a UFO is employing the Vehicle Masking Device (VMD), it could be both present and unnoticed at the time a "crop circle" is formed. The 60 GHz RF could be up-converted (with a 3X multiplier) to a 180 GHz RF which is exactly centered in an H2O attenuation band. See Figure 1. A controlled antenna (or even an open wave-guide) could heat the water concentrated in the base nodules of stalks causing them to soften and fall in a circular pattern. If simple water absorption of microwave energy is the mechanism involved in these cases, could snow circles be expected next? Humans could make such "crop circles" but they would likely employ the lower attenuation band at 22.2 GHz. Such "crop circles" would appear to contain less fine detail, especially if the human controlled platform is at high altitude to avoid visual detection.

A simple method may be used to validate alien made Crop Circles. They must be distinguished by fine sculpting and contain interesting verifiable information. Three such crop images are:
  1. T367 - The Solar System Crop Circle.
  2. THE CHILBOLTON - 'Arecibo Message' Crop Circle.
  3. OPPONO ASTOS - "I oppose acts of craft and cunning" Crop Circle.
Many of the decoratively interesting Crop Circles are anticipated to be human generated using RF radiation at the lower H2O absorption band.


The T367 Crop Circle is one with finely carved crop stands crafted into orbits with small circles depicting planets and asteroids left standing while the remainder is flattened. This Crop Circle is a warning of impending comet strikes on Earth and the nominal date of the event can be deduced from the configuration of the planets.


The Arecibo message was designed by Frank Drake (who was then Director of the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, and later became the Chairman of the Board of the SETI Institute) together with his Observatory staff. It was a simple graphic consisting of 73 rows of 23 "bits" per row. This number of rows and columns was chosen because each is a prime number. Prime numbers could be guessed by any recipients, and that would help them to decode the graphic. The message was sent in 1974 by simple shifting of the signal between two frequencies in the 2,380 MHz band and transmitted with a signal strength of 20 terawatts. The message contains the kind of information that any culture would want to learn about us: where we are located (at least within a depiction of our solar system), what we look like (a crude stick figure), a simple drawing of the transmitting antenna, and something about our biological construction (DNA and some of the building blocks of our biochemistry.) See Figure 7.

Figure 7. The SETI Arecibo Message - Courtesy Paul Vigay.

On Tuesday 21st August 2001 two new crop formations were reported near Chilbolton radio telescope in Hampshire, UK. Both were very impressive looking and consisted of a large number of small 'pixels', which when viewed from the air formed a recognizable shape - unlike many other crop formations. One represented a 'human face' and the other resembled a radio transmission that SETI (the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) sent from the Arecibo radio telescope in 1974. See Lucy Pringle's Aerial Photograph of the Chilbolton Hampshire Crop Circle.

The Chilbolton Crop Circle contains information apparently about the "little Grey men". See Figure 8:

Figure 8.
The Chibolton "Arecibo Message" Crop Circle © Lucy Pringle"
  1. The Alien Sun - Perhaps Slightly Smaller Than Our Own
  2. The 4 Alien Home Worlds - Satellites Of A Massive Planet. These Four Satellites Are Elevated Indicating That They Are Inhabited.
  3. The Alien "Jupiter" - The Massive Third Planet From The Alien Sun. Note That This Is A "Three Dot" Planet With The "Middle Dot" Missing Because This Planet Is Not Inhabited.
  4. The Alien Height - 3'4".
  5. The Alien Population Count - 21.3 billion.
  6. The Alien Antenna Size (Emitting The 180 GHz Radiation) - 240 Meters.

Included is that their population at the time was 21.3 billion (compared to our 4.29 billion in 1974) and that they average about 3'4" tall compared to our transmitted height of 5'9". Further, they include all the elements that we included as fundamental to life on Earth (Hydrogen, Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Phosphorus but added one more, Silicon. The interpretation of their solar system was unclear, and cited source third, fourth and fifth planets from their Sun. But SETI astronomers related this structure to a depiction of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter). See Figure 9. Of course, they didn't mention that Jupiter is the fifth planet out from our Sun, not the third.

Figure 9. Jupiter And Its Four Satellites; Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto.

Interestingly enough, others have concluded that the Hill aliens are from the Alpha Centauri star system.30 Danjo has shown that they are residents of some of the four major satellites of the planet that could be considered the "Jupiter" of their system. This planet is designated as planet h in Table 10-1 and is estimated to be about seven times as massive as our Jupiter. See Table 2.

(AU-Earth Mass)
0 k# 0.20 - tinyAsteroids
1 j# 0.29 - 0.23
2 i# 0.78 - 206
3 h# 1.17 - 2220The "Jupiter" Of This System
4 none given # 3.13? - ? Unstable Orbit?
5 none given # 4.60? - ? Unstable Orbit?
6 g@ 131? - ?Unstable Orbit?
7 f@ 197? - 164?Unstable Orbit?
9 e@ 525 - 232
10 d@ 788 - 312
11 c@ 2103 - 408**
1.5% - 3.3% Solar Mass
12 b@ 3155 - 616***
2.2% - 4.9% Solar Mass
13 a@ 12620 - 1372*** (Proxima); 5% - 11% Solar Mass
# Inner planets associated with one star. Small Pluto-like planets captured from Proxima Centauri would not be representated in this model.
@ Outer planets orbiting both the Alpha Centauri A and B star system.
*Primordial Black Hole seed likely detonated long ago producing asteroids.
** These are the planets cast from the principal (usually thought to be the A star) star of this three star system or the star with a spin inertia similar to our Sun. Larger planets are generally formed when stars, larger than Vulcan (which is a little larger than Jupiter), supply the casting forces. All masses are in Earth Masses unless otherwise designated. It is not certain if this best models the A or B star in the Alpha Centauri System.
*** These values describe the heavy element planet core. Planets more than 1000 AU distant from their parent G or K type star are thought able to hold hydrogen gas acquired from the gaseous nebulae. Otherwise, radiation from the parent stars will disburse the hydrogen (although many hydrides will form in the planets' atmosphere and on the surface) and it will become a typical Jovian planet. These conditions have not been modeled.

The orbits and masses of natural planetary satellites can also be computed by a method similar to the one that was performed for the planets. See Table 3. Some of these planets (and their satellites), that are the analog of our Jupiter and Saturn systems, are formed in the liquid water zone around the principal stars.

Danjo concludes that life, if it were present, would most likely exist on the larger satellites of the two Jupiter size planets orbiting the principal star of these two star systems. These planetary satellites appear slightly larger than Mars and slightly smaller than Earth.

Danjo concludes that satellites h-3 and h-4 orbiting planet h of the Alpha Centauri A star offer a particularly attractive body to host biological life similar to that found on Earth. The most distant satellite periods will be on the order of a year and a half, producing additional seasonal modulations. A surface gravity about that of Earth is now anticipated. Note: The surface gravity of some of these satellites may be more like that of Venus (80% Earth's). Rapidly varying Earth like temperatures could occur.

Satellite System/Planet Orbit (AU) - Mass (Earth)#
Sun/Jupiter 5.2 - 381
J-1 Callisto 0.0098 - 0.0216
J-2 Ganymede 0.0062 - 0.0297
J-3 Europa 0.0039 - 0.0096
J-4 Io 0.0025 - 0.0178
Sun/Saturn 9.52 - 95
S-1 Titan 0.0071 - 0.0226
S-2 - rings
S-3 Rhea 0.0031 - 0.0004
S-4 Dione 0.0022 - 0.0002
Alpha Centauri A/Planet h 1.17 - 2270
h-1 * - 0.62
h-2 * - 0.90
h-3 * - 0.28
h-4 * - 0.51
Alpha Centauri A/Planet i 0.78 - 206
i-1 * - 0.48
i-2 * - rings
i-3 * - 0.0085
i-4 * - 0.0040
* No Reliable Estimate

Figure 10 below illustrates how this planet and satellite structure fits into the Hill Star Map.

The Chilbolten crop circle describes the alien Sun as smaller than our Sun. Alpha Centauri is a three star system, with a pair of close binary stars. The A star is a G class star about the size of our Sun, but the B star is a smaller K class star. The Hill aliens were thought to originate from the solar system of the A class star. However, the structure of the solar systems of these two stars is also dependent on the spin of these stars, and that term is unknown. The solar system described could be the one for the B star should its spin be significantly greater than that of our Sun. Further confusing these calculations is the speculation that the Hill aliens, our Scholar COMBO species, often travel with our Priest COMBO species which was thought to originate from planet h' in the B star's solar system. This planet it also anticipated to be a large one with multiple (three or four) large satellites. These could be the species with silicon in their organic structure. They could also be the reason the alien Sun is depicted smaller than our own.

Figure 10. (Danjo's Figure 11-5) Some Planets (And Their Satellites) Predicted To Be In The Alpha Centauri Star System

The Areicibo Message contained the size of the antenna that transmitted it, that, upon analysis , can be deduced to be about 309 meters. Likewise, upon a similar analysis, the transmitter of Chilbolton Crop circle is found to be one of about 239 meters. It apparently was a hexagonal array, reminiscent of phased array antennas. Perhaps the antenna was mounted on a "ship" is at an altitude of 100 kilometers. Assuming the beam width is given by about 70 X the wavelength divided by the diameter,31 crop circles could be formed , with the 180 GHz beam producing a 85 centimeter wide spot, cooking the crops and causing them to fall. Such a "ship" would be difficult to observe at night.


During the summer of 1991 some 600 new crop circles appeared. This was the summer when serious contamination of formations began to take place. Some of the hoaxing was done by pranksters looking for attention, some by mischief makers. But, more sinisterly, it was also carried out by known government infiltrators who purposely added man-made features to genuine formations in a attempt to throw the researchers into total confusion. At the height of the hoaxing, an American tourist etched out huge letters on the side of a hill, 'Talk to us'. A reply came back a few days later when a most bizarre-looking formation resembling Hebrew script appeared at Milk Hill. Thought to be a hoax at first but since confirmed to be genuine, it was deciphered as a form of post-Augustan Latin and etched in Free Masonic script, creating two words: OPPONO ASTOS "I oppose acts of craft and cunning" How appropriate given the circumstances. To this day this formation represents the closest the Circle- makers have come to communicating in recognizable script



Since this was a response to a SETI transmission, SETI was quick to de-bunk the Chilbolton Circle. See Is the Latest Crop Circle a Message from E.T?" Here are some of their main points and rebuttals.
  1. The aliens, if they've received this signal, they would obviously be aware of our capability to send and receive high-frequency radio. So why would they resort to an extraordinarily crude method of "replying" - carving simple messages in our wheat? Why don't they use radio?
    They have already tried radio in August of 1923. We did not listen.
  2. How come they look like us?
    Monkeys and Apes look like us too. How many aliens species are SETI scientists familiar with?
  3. The Arecibo beam at 2,380 MHz is about 2 arc-minutes, which is roughly 1/15th the diameter of the full moon. It's highly, highly unlikely that any star system has yet been exposed to the Arecibo message.
    They intercepted the side-lobes of the Arecibo signal in a spacecraft close to Earth, or perhaps just heard about it in radio or television transmissions.
  4. The biochemistry information in the crop circle is the same as the Arecibo message
    That biochemistry supports a lot of different life forms here on Earth, why not elsewhere?
  5. But it's remarkable that the silicon mentioned above doesn't figure into the formulae of any of these alien DNA components
    We left iron (hemoglobin) out of Arecibo message. Alien blood is reported not to be red. Maybe is has silicon in it.
  6. They also use the same number of sugars and bases that make up human DNA to construct theirs.
    They are our COMBO members, and they are suppose to be similar to us.
  7. Finally, the whole matter of crop circles fails the baloney test. They can be easily made by people interested in creating a stir.
    Most Crop Circles are made by humans, just for purposes such as these (or for dis-information. After all, actual alien saucers will continue to land with their AADs still on inadvertently producing crop circles. The "fancy crop circles" cause these to fade into obscurity.
  8. Bottom line? The crop circles are decorative, impressive, and provocative, but not informative. We can expect better from true extraterrestrial intelligence.
    The data contained therein is consistent with Danjo's planet formation theory and the Crop Circle formation mechanics is supported by the patented alien technology contained in this work.


Patented technology is offered that supports many observed UFO enigmas, such as magnetic fields, glowing and morphing vessels, lack of "sonic booms" when saucers are traveling rapidly in the low atmosphere and intercepted radar like signals. An Aerodynamic Augmentation Device (AAD) is envisioned that utilizes 60 GHz millimeter wave radiation to ionize atmospheric oxygen and a magnetic field is utilized to thin the air by separating the ionized molecules. A limited number of L and S band radar frequencies are anticipated to be associated with the AAD and these can support radar transmissions or generate leakage signals from Hill alien operated saucers.

This technology is associated with the generation of alien crop circles. One such circle, the Chilbolton glyph, has been associated with SETI's Arecibo Message and that glyph describes the aliens home solar system. Planet (and satellite) formation theory (published 1994) supports Danjo's conclusion that the Hill aliens (little Grey men) inhabit satellites of a planet substantially larger than Jupiter probably found in the Alpha Centauri star system.


1. Patents #5,791,599 and #5,797,563. Patent disclosure 360329; 26 August 1994.

2. Peter Brookesmith; THE UFO CASEBOOK; Orbits Publishing Limited, Marketed by RCA Direct Marketing Inc, 1133 avenue of the Americas, New York, NY, 10036, USA; 1982; pg. 25.

3. Patent #5,635,905. Patent disclosure 329624; 16 April 1993. Only the targeting component was patented. The patent for the masking component was denied, but revelation to foreign nationals is still forbidden.

4. Ibid.

5. James McDonald; UFO ENCOUNTER I; Astronautics & Aeronautics; July 1971; pp 66 - 70.

6. James M. McCampbell; AN HYPOTHESIS CONCERNING THE ORIGIN OF UFO'S -- HORSES UNDER THE HOOD; Paper for the American Institute of Astronautics and Aeronautics; 1975; pp. 37 - 45.

7. Photon momentum transfer needed to repel O2 molecules at speeds of 1000 mph requires 1020 times more power than that needed to heat the onrushing air to a temperature of 2100o K.

8. See patent disclosure 3620484 dated 16 November 1971.

9. See patent disclosure 4917335 dated 17 April 1990.

10. See patent disclosure 5263661 dated 23 November 1993.

11. Varian corporation already produces pulsed and CW Gyrotron tubes (VGE- 8060 and VGE-8006) with outputs of 200 kilowatts at 60 GHz. Varian Gyrotron tubes run with efficiencies of 37% to 50%, far higher than the 10% efficiencies assumed in these computations.

12. Stefan Denaerde and Wendelle Stevens; UFO ... CONTACT FROM PLANET IARGA; Privately Published by Wendelle C. Stevens, 3224 South Winona Circle, Tucson, Arizona 85730; 1982; pp. 11 ffand pg. 119

13. Yari Danjo; ASTRO-METRICS Of Undiscovered Planets And Intelligent Life Forms; Distributor, D & L Associates, P. O. Box 2581, Sunnyvale, CA 94087; 1994; pp. 83, 120, 125 ff.

14. Edward J. Ruppelt; THE REPORT ON UNIDENTIFIED FLYING OBJECTS; 1956; pg. 219.

15. Ronald D. Story; SIGHTINGS: UFOs AND THE LIMITS OF SCIENCE; Quill, William Morrow and Company, INC, 105 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10016; 1981; pg. 132.

16. Norman R. Bergrun; TOMORROW'S TECHNOLOGY TODAY, Academy Press, Campbell, California; 1772; pp 38 - 48.

17. A saucer paced an RB-57 aircraft north of Fairbanks, Alaska in 1961. The saucer maintained its position below and behind the aircraft so that the pilot's view of it was obscured by the aircraft's wings and engine nacelles. The pilot managed to obtain photographs of the forward edge of the saucer by placing his hand held camera in the forward most portion of the cockpit. An airman, who inspected the photograph, recalls that some "silver dollar" size rivets, spaced about six inches apart, held a "leading edge (possibly a radome?)" on to the main body of the saucer. Information courtesy of Dave Baylog, 15 February, 1995.

18. Yari Danjo; ASTRO-METRICS Of Undiscovered Planets And Intelligent Life Forms; Distributor, D & L Associates, P. O. Box 2581, Sunnyvale, CA 94087; 1994; pg. 114.

19. Yari Danjo; ASTRO-METRICS Of Undiscovered Planets And Intelligent Life Forms; Op. Cit; pp. 86 - 96.

20. Peter Brookesmith; THE UFO CASEBOOK; Orbis Publishing Limited, London, England; 1982; pg. 76.

21. Hilary Evans; THE EVIDENCE FOR UFOs; The Aquarian Press (part of the Thorsons Publishing Group), Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, England; 1983; pg. 60.

22. Hilary Evans; THE EVIDENCE FOR UFOs; Op. Cit.; pg. 61.

23. Hartwig Hausdorf; THE CHINESE ROSWELL; New Paradigm Books, 22783 South State Road 7, Suite 97, Boca Raton FL 33428; 1998; pg. 155.

24. PHYSICS FROM UFO DATA by Massimo Teodorani, Ph.D. - Astronomer

This paper was originally presented at the American Physical Society meeting in April, 1993 [Bulletin of the American Physical Society, Vol. 38, pg 1041, 1993] and published in the Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 8, pg. 347, 1994.)

submitted to the House Committee on Science and Astronautics Symposium on Unidentified Flying Objects, Raburn Bldg, Washington D.C. July 29, 1968, by James E. Mcdonald

27. James McDonald; UFO ENCOUNTER I; Op. Cit.

28. Editor's note; Astronautics & Aeronautics; July 1971; pg. 70.

29. Yari Danjo; ASTRO-METRICS Of Undiscovered Planets And Intelligent Life Forms; Op. Cit.; pp. 83 ff, 114 and 123.

30. Beishline, Blackburn and Warmkessel; DOWSING FOR EXTRA-TERRESTRIALS; American Association Of Dowsers; Fall 1995; pg. 7.
Beishline, Blackburn and Warmkessel; FOLLOW - UP, DOWSING FOR EXTRA-TERRESTRIALS; American Association Of Dowsers; Fall 1996.